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Evidence That Dieterich Of Bern Is Hadding






Category: THE MYTH IN REGARD TO THE LOWER WORLD.

Source: Teutonic Mythology

The appearance of Hamal and the Amalians on Hadding's side in the great
world war becomes a certainty from the fact that we discover among the
descendants of the continental Teutons a great cycle of sagas, all of
whose events are more or less intimately connected with the mythic
kernel: that Amalian heroes with unflinching fidelity supported a prince
who already in the tender years of his youth had been deprived of his
share of his father's kingdom, and was obliged to take flight from the
persecution of a kinsman and his assistants to the far East, where he
remained a long time, until after various fortunes of war he was able to
return, conquer, and take possession of his paternal inheritance. And
for this he was indebted to the assistance of the brave Amalians. These
are the chief points in the saga cycle about Dieterich of Bern
(thjodrekr, Thidrek, Theodericus), and the fortunes of the young
prince are, as we have thus seen, substantially the same as Hadding's.

When we compare sagas preserved by the descendants of the Teutons of the
Continent with sagas handed down to us from Scandinavian sources, we
must constantly bear in mind that the great revolution which the victory
of Christianity over Odinism produced in the Teutonic world of thought,
inasmuch as it tore down the ancient mythical structure and applied the
fragments that were fit for use as material for a new saga
structure--that this revolution required a period of more than eight
hundred years before it had conquered the last fastnesses of the Odinic
doctrine. On the one side of the slowly advancing borders between the
two religions there developed and continued a changing and
transformation of the old sagas, the main purpose of which was to
obliterate all that contained too much flavour of heathendom and was
incompatible with Christianity; while, on the other side of the borders
of faith, the old mythic songs, but little affected by the tooth of
time, still continued to live in their original form. Thus one might, to
choose the nearest example at hand, sing on the northern side of this
faith-border, where heathendom still prevailed, about how Hadding, when
the persecutions of Svipdag and his half-brother Gudhorm compelled him
to fly to the far East, there was protected by Odin, and how he through
him received the assistance of Hrutr-Heimdall; while the Christians,
on the south side of this border, sang of how Dieterich, persecuted by a
brother and the protectors of the latter, was forced to take flight to
the far East, and how he was there received by a mighty king, who, as he
could no longer be Odin, must be the mightiest king in the East ever
heard of--that is, Attila--and how Attila gave him as protector a
certain Ruediger, whose very name contains an echo of Ruther (Heimdal),
who could not, however, be the white Asa-god, Odin's faithful servant,
but must be changed into a faithful vassal and "markgrave" under Attila.
The Saxons were converted to Christianity by fire and sword in the
latter part of the eighth century. In the deep forests of Sweden
heathendom did not yield completely to Christianity before the twelfth
century. In the time of Saxo's father there were still heathen
communities in Smaland on the Danish border. It follows that Saxo must
have received the songs concerning the ancient Teutonic heroes in a far
more original form than that in which the same songs could be found in
Germany.

Hadding means "the hairy one," "the fair-haired;" Dieterich
(thjodrekr) means "the ruler of the people," "the great ruler." Both
epithets belong to one and the same saga character. Hadding is the
epithet which belongs to him as a youth, before he possessed a kingdom;
Dieterich is the epithet which represents him as the king of many
Teutonic tribes. The Vilkinsaga says of him that he had an abundant and
beautiful growth of hair, but that he never got a beard. This is
sufficient to explain the name Hadding, by which he was presumably
celebrated in song among all Teutonic tribes; for we have already seen
that Hadding is known in Anglo-Saxon poetry as Hearding, and, as we
shall see, the continental Teutons knew him not only as Dieterich, but
also as Hartung. It is also possible that the name "the hairy" has in
the myth had the same purport as the epithet "the fair-haired" has in
the Norse account of Harald, Norway's first ruler, and that Hadding of
the myth was the prototype of Harald, when the latter made the vow to
let his hair grow until he was king of all Norway (Harald Harfager's
Saga, 4). The custom of not cutting hair or beard before an exploit
resolved upon was carried out was an ancient one among the Teutons, and
so common and so sacred that it must have had foothold and prototype in
the hero-saga. Tacitus mentions it (Germania, 31); so does Paulus
Diaconus (Hist., iii. 7) and Gregorius of Tours (v. 15).

Although it had nearly ceased to be heard in the German saga cycle,
still the name Hartung has there left traces of its existence. "Anhang
des Heldenbuchs" mentions King Hartung aus Reuessenlant; that is to
say, a King Hartung who came from some land in the East. The poem
"Rosengarten" (variant D; cp. W. Grimm, D. Heldensage, 139, 253) also
mentions Hartunc, king von Riuzen. A comparison of the different
versions of "Rosengarten" with the poem "Dieterichs Flucht" shows that
the name Hartung von Riuzen in the course of time becomes Hartnit von
Riuzen and Hertnit von Riuzen, by which form of the name the hero
reappears in Vilkinasaga as a king in Russia. If we unite the scattered
features contained in these sources about Hartung we get the following
main outlines of his saga:

(a) Hartung is a king and dwells in an eastern country (all the
records).

(b) He is not, however, an independent ruler there, at least not in
the beginning, but is subject to Attila (who in the Dieterich's saga has
supplanted Odin as chief ruler in the East). He is Attila's man
("Dieterichs Flucht").

(c) A Swedish king has robbed him of his land and driven him into
exile.

(d) The Swedish king is of the race of elves, and the chief of the
same race as the celebrated Velint--that is to say, Volund
(Wayland)--belonged to (Vilkinasaga). As shall be shown later (see Nos.
108, 109), Svipdag, the banisher of Hadding, belongs to the same race.
He is Volund's nephew (brother's son).

(e) Hartung recovers, after the death of the Swedish conqueror, his
own kingdom, and also conquers that of the Swedish king (Vilkinasaga).

All these features are found in the saga of Hadding. Thus the original
identity of Hadding and Hartung is beyond doubt. We also find that
Hartung, like Dieterich, is banished from his country; that he fled,
like him, to the East; that he got, like him, Attila the king of the
East as his protector; that he thereupon returned, conquered his
enemies, and recovered his kingdom. Hadding's, Hartung's and Dieterich's
sagas are, therefore, one and the same in root and in general outline.
Below it shall also be shown that the most remarkable details are common
to them all.

I have above (No. 42) given reasons why Hamal (Amala), the
foster-brother of Halfdan Borgarson, was Hadding's assistant and general
in the war against his foes. The hero, who in the German saga has the
same place under Dieterich, is the aged "master" Hildebrand, Dieterich's
faithful companion, teacher, and commander of his troops. Can it be
demonstrated that what the German saga tells about Hildebrand reveals
threads that connect him with the saga of the original patriarchs, and
that not only his position as Dieterich's aged friend and general, but
also his genealogy, refer to this saga? And can a satisfactory
explanation be given of the reason why Hildebrand obtained in the German
Dieterich saga the same place as Hamal had in the old myth?

Hildebrand is, as his very name shows, a Hilding,[31] like Hildeger who
appears in the patriarch saga (Saxo, Hist., 356-359). Hildeger was,
according to the tradition in Saxo, the half-brother of Halfdan
Borgarson. They had the same mother Drot, but not the same father;
Hildeger counted himself a Swede on his father's side; Halfdan, Borgar's
son, considered himself as belonging to the South Scandinavians and
Danes, and hence the dying Hildeger sings to Halfdan (Hist., 357):

Danica te tellus, me Sveticus edidit orbis.
Drot tibi maternum, quondam distenderat uber;
Hac genitrici tibi pariter collacteus exto.[32]

In the German tradition Hildebrand is the son of Herbrand. The Old High
German fragment of the song, about Hildebrand's meeting with his son
Hadubrand, calls him Heribrantes sunu. Herbrand again is, according to
the poem "Wolfdieterich," Berchtung's son (concerning Berchtung, see No.
6). In a Norse tradition preserved by Saxo we find a Hilding (Hildeger)
who is Borgar's stepson; in the German tradition we find a Hilding
(Herbrand) who is Borgar-Berchtung's son. This already shows that the
German saga about Hildebrand was originally connected with the patriarch
saga about Borgar, Halfdan, and Halfdan's sons, and that the Hildings
from the beginning were akin to the Teutonic patriarchs. Borgar's
transformation from stepfather to the father of a Hilding shall be
explained below.

Hildeger's saga and Hildebrand's are also related in subject matter. The
fortunes of both the kinsmen are at the same time like each other and
the antithesis of each other. Hildeger's character is profoundly tragic;
Hildebrand is happy and secure. Hildeger complains in his death-song in
Saxo (cp. Asmund Kaempebane's saga) that he has fought with and slain his
own beloved son. In the Old High German song-fragment Hildebrand seeks,
after his return from the East, his son Hadubrand, who believed that his
father was dead and calls Hildebrand a deceiver, who has taken the dead
man's name, and forces him to fight a duel. The fragment ends before we
learn the issue of the duel; but Vilkinasaga and a ballad about
Hildebrand have preserved the tradition in regard to it. When the old
"master" has demonstrated that his Hadubrand is not yet equal to him in
arms, father and son ride side by side in peace and happiness to their
home. Both the conflicts between father and son, within the Hilding
family, are pendants and each other's antithesis. Hildeger, who
passionately loves war and combat, inflicts in his eagerness for strife
a deep wound in his own heart when he kills his own son. Hildebrand acts
wisely, prudently, and seeks to ward off and allay the son's love of
combat before the duel begins, and he is able to end it by pressing his
young opponent to his paternal bosom. On the other hand, Hildeger's
conduct toward his half-brother Halfdan, the ideal of a noble and
generous enemy, and his last words to his brother, who, ignorant of the
kinship, has given him the fatal wound, and whose mantle the dying one
wishes to wrap himself in (Asmund Kaempebane's saga), is one of the
touching scenes in the grand poems about our earliest ancestors. It
seems to have proclaimed that blood revenge was inadmissible, when a
kinsman, without being aware of the kinship, slays a kinsman, and when
the latter before he died declared his devotion to his slayer. At all
events we rediscover the aged Hildebrand as the teacher and protector of
the son of the same Halfdan who slew Hildeger, and not a word is said
about blood revenge between Halfdan's and Hildeger's descendants.

The kinship pointed out between the Teutonic patriarchs and the Hildings
has not, however, excluded a relation of subordination of the latter to
the former. In "Wolfdieterich" Hildebrand's father receives land and
fief from Dieterich's grandfather and carries his banner in war.
Hildebrand himself performs toward Dieterich those duties which are due
from a foster-father, which, as a rule, show a relation of
subordination to the real father of the foster-son. Among the kindred
families to which Dieterich and Hildebrand belong there was the same
difference of rank as between those to which Hadding and Hamal belong.
Hamal's father Hagal was Halfdan's foster-father, and, to judge from
this, occupied the position of a subordinate friend toward Halfdan's
father Borgar. Thus Halfdan and Hamal were foster-brothers, and from
this it follows that Hamal, if he survived Halfdan, was bound to assume
a foster-father's duties towards the latter's son Hadding, who was not
yet of age. Hamal's relation to Hadding is therefore entirely analagous
to Hildebrand's relation to Dieterich.

The pith of that army which attached itself to Dieterich are Amelungs,
Amalians (see "Biterolf"); that is to say, members of Hamal's race. The
oldest and most important hero, the pith of the pith, is old master
Hildebrand himself, Dieterich's foster-father and general. Persons who
in the German poems have names which refer to their Amalian birth are by
Hildebrand treated as members of a clan are treated by a clan-chief.
Thus Hildebrand brings from Sweden a princess, Amalgart, and gives her
as wife to a son of Amelolt serving among Dieterich's Amelungs, and to
Amelolt Hildebrand has already given his sister for a wife.

The question as to whether we find threads which connect the Hildebrand
of the German poem with the saga of the mythic patriarchs, and
especially with the Hamal (Amala) who appears in this saga, has now been
answered. Master Hildebrand has in the German saga-cycle received the
position and the tasks which originally belonged to Hamal, the
progenitor of the Amalians.

The relation between the kindred families--the patriarch family, the
Hilding family, and the Amal family--has certainly been just as
distinctly pointed out in the German saga-cycle as in the Norse before
the German met with a crisis, which to some extent confused the old
connection. This crisis came when Hadding-thjodrekr of the ancient
myth was confounded with the historical king of the East Goths,
Theoderich. The East Goth Theoderich counted himself as belonging to the
Amal family, which had grown out of the soil of the myth. He was,
according to Jordanes (De Goth. Orig., 14), a son of Thiudemer, who
traced his ancestry to Amal (Hamal), son of Augis (Hagal).[33] The
result of the confusion was:

(a) That Hadding-thjodrekr became the son of Thiudemer, and that his
descent from the Teuton patriarchs was cut off.

(b) That Hadding-thjodrekr himself became a descendant of Hamal,
whereby the distinction between this race of rulers--the line of
Teutonic patriarchs begun with Ruther Heimdal--together with the Amal
family, friendly but subject to the Hadding family, and the Hilding
family was partly obscured and partly abolished. Dieterich himself
became an "Amelung" like several of his heroes.

(c) That when Hamal thus was changed from an elder contemporary of
Hadding-thjodrekr into his earliest progenitor, separated from him by
several generations of time, he could no longer serve as Dieterich's
foster-father and general; but this vocation had to be transferred to
master Hildebrand, who also in the myth must have been closely connected
with Hadding, and, together with Hamal, one of his chief and constant
helpers.

(d) That Borgar-Berchtung, who in the myth is the grandfather of
Hadding-thjodrekr, must, as he was not an Amal, resign this dignity
and confine himself to being the progenitor of the Hildings. As we have
seen, he is in Saxo the progenitor of the Hilding Hildeger.

Another result of Hadding-thjodrekr's confusion with the historical
Theoderich was that Dieterich's kingdom, and the scene of various of his
exploits, was transferred to Italy: to Verona (Bern), Ravenna (Raben),
&c. Still the strong stream of the ancient myths became master of the
confused historical increments, so that the Dieterich of the saga has
but little in common with the historical Theoderich.

After the dissemination of Christianity, the hero saga of the Teutonic
myths was cut off from its roots in the mythology, and hence this
confusion was natural and necessary. Popular tradition, in which traces
were found of the historical Theoderich-Dieterich, was no longer able to
distinguish the one Dieterich from the other. A writer acquainted with
the chronicle of Jordanes took the last step and made Theoderich's
father Thiudemer the father of the mythic Hadding-thjodrekr.

Nor did the similarity of names alone encourage this blending of the
persons. There was also another reason. The historical Theoderich had
fought against Odoacer. The mythic Hadding-thjodrekr had warred with
Svipdag, the husband of Freyja, who also bore the name Odr and Ottar
(see Nos. 96-100). The latter name-form corresponds to the English and
German Otter, the Old High German Otar, a name which suggested the
historical Otacher (Odoacer). The Dieterich and Otacher of historical
traditions became identified with thjodrekr and Ottar of mythical
traditions.

As the Hadding-thjodrekr of mythology was in his tender youth exposed
to the persecutions of Ottar, and had to take flight from them to the
far East, so the Dieterich of the historical saga also had to suffer
persecutions in his tender youth from Otacher, and take flight,
accompanied by his faithful Amalians, to a kingdom in the East.
Accordingly, Hadubrand says of his father Hildebrand, that, when he
betook himself to the East with Dieterich, floh her Otachres nid, "he
fled from Otacher's hate." Therefore, Otacher soon disappears from the
German saga-cycle, for Svipdag-Ottar perishes and disappears in the
myth, long before Hadding's victory and restoration to his father's
power (see No. 106).

Odin and Heimdal, who then, according to the myth, dwelt in the East and
there became the protectors of Hadding, must, as heathen deities, be
removed from the Christian saga, and be replaced as best they could by
others. The famous ruler in the East, Attila, was better suited than
anyone else to take Odin's place, though Attila was dead before
Theoderich was born. Ruther-Heimdal was, as we have already seen,
changed into Ruediger.

The myth made Hadding dwell in the East for many years (see above). The
ten-year rule of the Vans in Asgard must end, and many other events must
occur before the epic connection of the myths permitted Hadding to
return as a victor. As a result of this, the saga of "Dieterich of Bern"
also lets him remain a long time with Attila. An old English song
preserved in the Exeter manuscript, makes Theodric remain thrittig
wintra in exile at Maeringaburg. The song about Hildebrand and Hadubrand
make him remain in exile sumaro enti wintro sehstic, and Vilkinasaga
makes him sojourn in the East thirty-two years.

Maeringaburg of the Anglo-Saxon poem is the refuge which Odin opened for
his favourite, and where the former dwelt during his exile in the East.
Maeringaburg means a citadel inhabited by noble, honoured, and splendid
persons: compare the Old Norse maeringr. But the original meaning of
maerr, Old German mara, is "glittering," "shining," "pure," and it is
possible that, before maeringr received its general signification of a
famous, honoured, noble man, it was used in the more special sense of a
man descended from "the shining one," that is to say, from Heimdal
through Borgar. However this may be, these "maeringar" have, in the
Anglo-Saxon version of the Hadding saga, had their antitheses in the
"baningar," that is, the men of Loke-Bicke (Bekki). This appears from
the expression Bekka veold Baningum, in Codex Exoniensis. The Banings
are no more than the Maerings, an historical name. The interpretation of
the word is to be sought in the Anglo-Saxon bana, the English bane.
The Banings means "the destroyers," "the corrupters," a suitable
appellation of those who follow the source of pest, the all-corrupting
Loke. In the German poems, Maeringaburg is changed to Meran, and
Borgar-Berchtung (Hadding's grandfather in the myth) is Duke of Meran.
It is his fathers who have gone to the gods that Hadding finds again
with Odin and Heimdal in the East.

Despite the confusion of the historical Theoderich with the mythic
Hadding-thjodrekr, a tradition has been handed down within the German
saga-cycle to the effect that "Dieterich of Bern" belonged to a
genealogy which Christianity had anathematised. Two of the German
Dieterich poems, "Nibelunge Noth" and "Klage," refrain from mentioning
the ancestors of their hero. Wilhelm Grimm suspects that the reason for
this is that the authors of these poems knew something about Dieterich's
descent, which they could not relate without wounding Christian ears;
and he reminds us that, when the Vilkinasaga Thidrek (Dieterich) teases
Hoegne (Hagen) by calling him the son of an elf, Hoegne answers that
Thidrek has a still worse descent, as he is the son of the devil
himself. The matter, which in Grimm's eyes is mystical, is explained by
the fact that Hadding-thjodrekr's father in the myth, Halfdan
Borgarson, was supposed to be descended from Thor, and in his capacity
of a Teutonic patriarch he had received divine worship (see Nos. 23 and
30). Anhang des Heldenbuchs says that Dieterich was the son of a
"boeser geyst."

It has already been stated (No. 38) that Hadding from Odin received a
drink which exercised a wonderful influence upon his physical nature. It
made him recreatum vegetiori corporis firmitate, and, thanks to it and
to the incantation sung over him by Odin, he was able to free himself
from the chains afterwards put on him by Loke. It has also been pointed
out that this drink contained something called Leifner's or Leifin's
flames. There is every reason for assuming that these "flames" had the
effect of enabling the person who had partaken of the potion of
Leifner's flames to free himself from his chains with his own breath.
Groa (Groagalder, 10) gives her son Svipdag "Leifner's fires" in order
that if he is chained, his enchanted limbs may be liberated (ek laet
ther Leifnis elda fyr kvedinn legg). The record of the giving of this
gift to Hadding meets us in the German saga, in the form that Dieterich
was able with his breath to burn the fetters laid upon him (see
"Laurin"), nay, when he became angry, he could breathe fire and make the
cuirass of his opponent red-hot. The tradition that Hadding by eating,
on the advice of Odin, the heart of a wild beast (Saxo says of a lion)
gained extraordinary strength, is also preserved in the form, that when
Dieterich was in distress, God sent him eines loewen krafft von
herczenlichen zoren ("Ecken Ausfarth").

Saxo relates that Hadding on one occasion was invited to descend into
the lower world and see its strange things (see No. 47). The heathen
lower world, with its fields of bliss and places of torture, became in
the Christian mind synonymous with hell. Hadding's descent to the lower
world, together with the mythic account of his journey through the air
on Odin's horse Sleipner, were remembered in Christian times in the form
that he once on a black diabolical horse rode to hell. This explains the
remarkable denouement of the Dieterich saga; namely, that he, the
magnanimous and celebrated hero, was captured by the devil. Otto of
Friesingen (first half of the twelfth century) states that Theodoricus
vivus equo sedens ad inferos descendit. The Kaiser chronicle says that
"many saw that the devils took Dieterich and carried him into the
mountain to Vulcan."

In Saxo we read that Hadding once while bathing had an adventure which
threatened him with the most direful revenge from the gods (see No.
106). Manuscripts of the Vilkinasaga speak of a fateful bath which
Thidrek took, and connects it with his journey to hell. While the hero
was bathing there came a black horse, the largest and stateliest ever
seen. The king wrapped himself in his bath towel and mounted the horse.
He found, too late, that the steed was the devil, and he disappeared for
ever.

Loke was at one time the comrade of Odin but by his mismating with a
giantess, Angerboda, he became the father of three monsters, the Fenris
Wolf, the Midgard Serpent and the terrible Hel, at the sight of which
latter living creatures were immediately stricken dead. Odin was so
enraged by these issues of Loke's commerce with a giantess, that he had
the brood brought before him in Asgard, and seizing Hel and the snake in
his powerful arms he flung them far out into space. Hel fell for nine
days until she reached Helheim, far beneath the earth, where she became
ruler over the dead. The snake dropped into the ocean that surrounds
Midgard, where it was to remain growing until its coils should envelop
the earth and in the end should help to bring about the destruction of
the world. The Wolf was borne away by Tyr and placed in chains, but
escaping later at Ragnarok he devoured Odin.]

Saxo tells that Hadding made war on a King Handuanus, who had concealed
his treasures in the bottom of a lake, and who was obliged to ransom his
life with a golden treasure of the same weight as his body (Hist.. 41,
42, 67). Handuanus is a Latinised form of the dwarf name Andvanr,
Andvani. The Sigurd saga has a record of this event, and calls the
dwarf Andvari (Sig. Fafn., ii.). The German saga is also able to
tell of a war which Dieterich waged against a dwarf king. The war has
furnished the materials for the saga of "Laurin." Here, too, the
conquered dwarf-king's life is spared, and Dieterich gets possession of
many of his treasures.

In the German as in the Norse saga, Hadding-thjodrekr's rival to
secure the crown was his brother, supported by Otacher-Ottar
(Svipdag). The tradition in regard to this, which agrees with the myth,
was known to the author of Anhang des Heldenbuchs. But already in an
early day the brother was changed into uncle on account of the
intermixing of historical reminiscences.

The brother's name in the Norse tradition is Gudhormr, in the German
Ermenrich (Ermanaricus). Ermenrich Joermunrekr means, like
thjodrekr, a ruler over many people, a great king. Jordanes already
has confounded the mythic Joermunrekr-Gudhormr with the historical
Gothic King Hermanaricus, whose kingdom was destroyed by the Huns, and
has applied to him the saga of Svanhild and her brothers Sarus
(Soerli) and Ammius (Hamdir), a saga which originally was connected
with that of the mythic Joermunrek. The Sigurd epic, which expanded
with plunder from all sources, has added to the confusion by annexing
this saga.

In the Roman authors the form Herminones is found by the side of
Hermiones as the name of one of the three Teutonic tribes which
descended from Mannus. It is possible, as already indicated, that
-horm in Gudhorm is connected with the form Hermio, and it is
probable, as already pointed out by several linguists, that the
Teutonic irmin (joermun, Goth. airmana) is linguistically
connected with the word Hermino. In that case, the very names
Gudhormr and Joermunrekr already point as such to the mythic
progenitor of the Hermiones, Herminones, just as Yngve-Svipdag's name
points to the progenitor of the Ingvaeones (Ingaevones), and possibly
also Hadding's to that of the Istaevones (see No. 25). To the name
Hadding corresponds, as already shown, the Anglo-Saxon Hearding, the old
German Hartung. The Hasdingi (Asdingi) mentioned by Jordanes were
the chief warriors of the Vandals (Goth. Orig., 22), and there may be
a mythic reason for rediscovering this family name among an East
Teutonic tribe (the Vandals), since Hadding, according to the myth, had
his support among the East Teutonic tribes. To the form Hasdingi
(Goth. Hazdiggos) the words istaevones, istvaeones, might readily
enough correspond, provided the vowel i in the Latin form can be
harmonised with a in the Teutonic. That the vowel i was an uncertain
element may be seen from the genealogy in Codex La Cava, which calls
Istaevo Ostius, Hostius.

As to geography, both the Roman and Teutonic records agree that the
northern Teutonic tribes were Ingaevones. In the myths they are
Scandinavians and neighbours to the Ingaevones. In the Beowulf poem the
king of the Danes is called eodor Inguina, the protection of the
Ingaevones, and frea Inguina, the lord of the Ingaevones. Tacitus says
that they live nearest to the ocean (Germ., 2); Pliny says that
Cimbrians, Teutons, and Chaucians were Ingaevones (Hist. Nat., iv. 28).
Pomponius Mela says that the land of the Cimbrians and Teutons was
washed by the Codan bay (iii. 3). As to the Hermiones and Istaevones, the
former dwelt along the middle Rhine, and of the latter, who are the East
Teutons of mythology, several tribes had already before the time of
Pliny pressed forward south of the Hermiones to this river.

The German saga-cycle has preserved the tradition that in the first
great battle in which Hadding-thjodrekr measured his strength with the
North and West Teutons he suffered a great defeat. This is openly avowed
in the Dieterich poem "die Klage." Those poems, on the other hand, which
out of sympathy for their hero give him victory in this battle ("the
Raben battle") nevertheless in fact acknowledge that such was not the
case, for they make him return to the East after the battle and remain
there many years, robbed of his crown, before he makes his second and
successful attempt to regain his kingdom. Thus the "Raben battle"
corresponds to the mythic battle in which Hadding is defeated by
Ingaevones and Hermiones. Besides the "Raben battle" has from a Teutonic
standpoint a trait of universality, and the German tradition has upon
the whole faithfully, and in harmony with the myth, grouped the allies
and heroes of the hostile brothers. Dieterich is supported by East
Teutonic warriors, and by non-Teutonic people from the East--from
Poland, Wallachia, Russia, Greece, &c.; Ermenrich, on the other hand, by
chiefs from Thuringia, Swabia, Hessen, Saxony, the Netherlands, England,
and the North, and, above all, by the Burgundians, who in the genealogy
in the St. Gaelen Codex are counted among the Hermiones, and in the
genealogy in the La Cava Codex are counted with the Ingaevones. For the
mythic descent of the Burgundian dynasty from an uncle of Svipdag I
shall present evidence in my chapters on the Ivalde race.

The original identity of Hadding's and Dieterich's sagas, and their
descent from the myth concerning the earliest antiquity and the
patriarchs, I now regard as demonstrated and established. The war
between Hadding-Dieterich and Gudhorm-Ermenrich is identical with the
conflict begun by Yngve-Svipdag between the tribes of the Ingaevones,
Hermiones, and Istaevones. It has also been demonstrated that Halfdan,
Gudhorm's, and Hadding's father, and Yngve-Svipdag's stepfather, is
identical with Mannus. One of the results of this investigation is,
therefore, that the songs about Mannus and his sons, ancient already in
the days of Tacitus, have, more or less influenced by the centuries,
continued to live far down in the middle ages, and that, not the songs
themselves, but the main features of their contents, have been preserved
to our time, and should again be incorporated in our mythology together
with the myth in regard to the primeval time, the main outline of which
has been restored, and the final episode of which is the first great war
in the world.

The Norse-Icelandic school, which accepted and developed the learned
hypothesis of the middle age in regard to the immigration of Odin and
his Asiamen, is to blame that the myth, in many respects important, in
regard to the olden time and its events in the world of gods and
men--among Aryan myths one of the most important, either from a
scientific or poetic point of view, that could be handed down to our
time--was thrust aside and forgotten. The learned hypothesis and the
ancient myth could not be harmonised. For that reason the latter had to
yield. Nor was there anything in this myth that particularly appealed to
the Norse national feeling, and so could claim mercy. Norway is not at
all named in it. Scania, Denmark, Svithiod (Sweden), and continental
Teutondom are the scene of the mythic events. Among the many causes
co-operating in Christian times, in giving what is now called "Norse
mythology" its present character, there is not one which has contributed
so much as the rejection of this myth toward giving "Norse mythology"
the stamp which it hitherto has borne of a narrow, illiberal town
mythology, which, built chiefly on the foundation of the Younger Edda,
is, as shall be shown in the present work, in many respects a caricature
of the real Norse, and at the same time in its main outlines Teutonic,
mythology.

In regard to the ancient Aryan elements in the myth here presented, see
Nos. 82 and 111.

[Footnote 31: In nearly all the names of members of this family, Hild-
or -brand, appears as a part of the compound word. All that the names
appear to signify is that their owners belong to the Hilding race.
Examples:--

Old High German fragment. Herbrand - Hildebrand - Hadubrand.
Wolfdieterich Berchtung. - Herbrand - Hildebrand.
Vilkinasaga. Hildebrand. - Alebrand.
A popular song about
Hildebrand. Hildebrand. - The younger Hildebrand.
/ Hildir.
Fundin Noregur. Hildir. - Hildebrand.
Herbrand.
/ Hildir.
Flateybook, i. 25, Hildir. - Hildebrand. - Vigbrand.
Herbrand.
Asmund Kaempebane's Saga. Hildebrand. - Helge. - Hildebrand.
]

[Footnote 32: Compare in Asmund Kaempebane's saga the words of the dying
hero:

thik Drott of bar
af Danmorku
en mik sjalfan
a Svithiodu.
]

[Footnote 33: The texts of Jordanes often omit the aspirate and write
Eruli for Heruli, &c. In regard to the name-form Amal, Closs remarks, in
his edition of 1886: AMAL, sic, Ambr. cum Epit. et Pall, nisi quod hi
Hamal aspirate.]





Next: Middle Age Sagas With Roots In The Myth Concerning The Lower World Erik Vidforle's Saga

Previous: Halfdan And Hamal Foster-brothers The Amalians Fight In Behalf Of Halfdan's Son Hadding



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