Prometheus The Friend of Man
Source: Myths And Legends Of All Nations.
Many, many centuries ago there lived two brothers, Prometheus or
Forethought, and Epimetheus or Afterthought. They were the sons of
those Titans who had fought against Jupiter and been sent in chains to
the great prison-house of the lower world, but for some reason had
Prometheus, however, did not care for idle life among the gods on
Mount Olympus. Instead he preferred to spend his time on the earth,
helping men to find easier and better ways of living. For the children
of earth were not happy as they had been in the golden days when
Saturn ruled. Indeed, they were very poor and wretched and cold,
without fire, without food, and with no shelter but miserable caves.
"With fire they could at least warm their bodies and cook their food,"
Prometheus thought, "and later they could make tools and build houses
for themselves and enjoy some of the comforts of the gods."
So Prometheus went to Jupiter and asked that he might be permitted to
carry fire to the earth. But Jupiter shook his head in wrath.
"Fire, indeed!" he exclaimed. "If men had fire they would soon be as
strong and wise as we who dwell on Olympus. Never will I give my
Prometheus made no reply, but he didn't give up his idea of helping
men. "Some other way must be found," he thought.
Then, one day, as he was walking among some reeds he broke off one,
and seeing that its hollow stalk was filled with a dry, soft pith,
"At last! In this I can carry fire, and the children of men shall
have the great gift in spite of Jupiter."
Immediately, taking a long stalk in his hands, he set out for the
dwelling of the sun in the far east. He reached there in the early
morning, just as Apollo's chariot was about to begin its journey
across the sky. Lighting his reed, he hurried back, carefully guarding
the precious spark that was hidden in the hollow stalk.
Then he showed men how to build fires for themselves, and it was not
long before they began to do all the wonderful things of which
Prometheus had dreamed. They learned to cook and to domesticate
animals and to till the fields and to mine precious metals and melt
them into tools and weapons. And they came out of their dark and
gloomy caves and built for themselves beautiful houses of wood and
stone. And instead of being sad and unhappy they began to laugh and
sing. "Behold, the Age of Gold has come again," they said.
But Jupiter was not so happy. He saw that men were gaining daily
greater power, and their very prosperity made him angry.
"That young Titan!" he cried out, when he heard what Prometheus had
done. "I will punish him."
But before punishing Prometheus he decided to vex the children of men.
So he gave a lump of clay to his blacksmith, Vulcan, and told him to
mold it in the form of a woman. When the work was done he carried it
Jupiter called the other gods together, bidding them give her each a
gift. One bestowed upon her beauty, another, kindness, another, skill,
another, curiosity, and so on. Jupiter himself gave her the gift of
life, and they named her Pandora, which means "all-gifted."
Then Mercury, the messenger of the gods, took Pandora and led her down
the mountain side to the place where Prometheus and his brother were
"Epimetheus, here is a beautiful woman that Jupiter has sent to be
your wife," he said.
Epimetheus was delighted and soon loved Pandora very deeply, because
of her beauty and her goodness.
Now Pandora had brought with her as a gift from Jupiter a golden
casket. Athena had warned her never to open the box, but she could not
help wondering and wondering what it contained. Perhaps it held
beautiful jewels. Why should they go to waste?
At last she could not contain her curiosity any longer. She opened the
box just a little to take a peep inside. Immediately there was a
buzzing, whirring sound, and before she could snap down the lid ten
thousand ugly little creatures had jumped out. They were diseases and
troubles, and very glad they were to be free.
All over the earth they flew, entering into every household, and
carrying sorrow and distress wherever they went.
How Jupiter must have laughed when he saw the result of Pandora's
Soon after this the god decided that it was time to punish Prometheus.
He called Strength and Force and bade them seize the Titan and carry
him to the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains. Then he sent Vulcan
to bind him with iron chains, making arms and feet fast to the rocks.
Vulcan was sorry for Prometheus, but dared not disobey.
So the friend of man lay, miserably bound, naked to the winds, while
the storms beat about him and an eagle tore at his liver with its
cruel talons. But Prometheus did not utter a groan in spite of all his
sufferings. Year after year he lay in agony, and yet he would not
complain, beg for mercy or repent of what he had done. Men were sorry
for him, but could do nothing.
Then one day a beautiful white cow passed over the mountain, and
stopped to look at Prometheus with sad eyes.
"I know you," Prometheus said. "You are Io, once a fair and happy
maiden dwelling in Argos, doomed by Jupiter and his jealous queen to
wander over the earth in this guise. Go southward and then west until
you come to the great river Nile. There you shall again become a
maiden, fairer than ever before, and shall marry the king of that
country. And from your race shall spring the hero who will break my
chains and set me free."
Centuries passed and then a great hero, Hercules, came to the Caucasus
Mountains. He climbed the rugged peak, slew the fierce eagle, and with
mighty blows broke the chains that bound the friend of man.
TTITLE THE LABORS OF HERCULES
Before the birth of Hercules Jupiter had explained in the council of
the gods that the first descendant of Perseus should be the ruler of
all the others of his race. This honor was intended for the son of
Perseus and Alcmene; but Juno was jealous and brought it about that
Eurystheus, who was also a descendant of Perseus, should be born
before Theseus. So Eurystheus became king in Mycene, and the
later-born Hercules remained inferior to him.
Now Eurystheus watched with anxiety the rising fame of his young
relative, and called his subject to him, demanding that he carry
through certain great tasks or labors. When Hercules did not
immediately obey, Jupiter himself sent word to him that he should
fulfill his service to the King of Greece.
Nevertheless the hero son of a god could not make up his mind easily
to render service to a mere mortal. So he traveled to Delphi and
questioned the oracle as to what he should do. This was the answer:
Next: The Overlordship Of Eurystheus Will Be Qualified On Condition That