Prometheus The Friend of Man





Many, many centuries ago there lived two brothers, Prometheus or

Forethought, and Epimetheus or Afterthought. They were the sons of

those Titans who had fought against Jupiter and been sent in chains to

the great prison-house of the lower world, but for some reason had

escaped punishment.



Prometheus, however, did not care for idle life among the gods on

Mount Olympus. Instead he preferred to spend his time on the earth,

helping men to find easier and better ways of living. For the children

of earth were not happy as they had been in the golden days when

Saturn ruled. Indeed, they were very poor and wretched and cold,

without fire, without food, and with no shelter but miserable caves.



"With fire they could at least warm their bodies and cook their food,"

Prometheus thought, "and later they could make tools and build houses

for themselves and enjoy some of the comforts of the gods."



So Prometheus went to Jupiter and asked that he might be permitted to

carry fire to the earth. But Jupiter shook his head in wrath.



"Fire, indeed!" he exclaimed. "If men had fire they would soon be as

strong and wise as we who dwell on Olympus. Never will I give my

consent."



Prometheus made no reply, but he didn't give up his idea of helping

men. "Some other way must be found," he thought.



Then, one day, as he was walking among some reeds he broke off one,

and seeing that its hollow stalk was filled with a dry, soft pith,

exclaimed:



"At last! In this I can carry fire, and the children of men shall

have the great gift in spite of Jupiter."



Immediately, taking a long stalk in his hands, he set out for the

dwelling of the sun in the far east. He reached there in the early

morning, just as Apollo's chariot was about to begin its journey

across the sky. Lighting his reed, he hurried back, carefully guarding

the precious spark that was hidden in the hollow stalk.



Then he showed men how to build fires for themselves, and it was not

long before they began to do all the wonderful things of which

Prometheus had dreamed. They learned to cook and to domesticate

animals and to till the fields and to mine precious metals and melt

them into tools and weapons. And they came out of their dark and

gloomy caves and built for themselves beautiful houses of wood and

stone. And instead of being sad and unhappy they began to laugh and

sing. "Behold, the Age of Gold has come again," they said.



But Jupiter was not so happy. He saw that men were gaining daily

greater power, and their very prosperity made him angry.



"That young Titan!" he cried out, when he heard what Prometheus had

done. "I will punish him."



But before punishing Prometheus he decided to vex the children of men.

So he gave a lump of clay to his blacksmith, Vulcan, and told him to

mold it in the form of a woman. When the work was done he carried it

to Olympus.



Jupiter called the other gods together, bidding them give her each a

gift. One bestowed upon her beauty, another, kindness, another, skill,

another, curiosity, and so on. Jupiter himself gave her the gift of

life, and they named her Pandora, which means "all-gifted."



Then Mercury, the messenger of the gods, took Pandora and led her down

the mountain side to the place where Prometheus and his brother were

living.





"Epimetheus, here is a beautiful woman that Jupiter has sent to be

your wife," he said.



Epimetheus was delighted and soon loved Pandora very deeply, because

of her beauty and her goodness.



Now Pandora had brought with her as a gift from Jupiter a golden

casket. Athena had warned her never to open the box, but she could not

help wondering and wondering what it contained. Perhaps it held

beautiful jewels. Why should they go to waste?



At last she could not contain her curiosity any longer. She opened the

box just a little to take a peep inside. Immediately there was a

buzzing, whirring sound, and before she could snap down the lid ten

thousand ugly little creatures had jumped out. They were diseases and

troubles, and very glad they were to be free.



All over the earth they flew, entering into every household, and

carrying sorrow and distress wherever they went.



How Jupiter must have laughed when he saw the result of Pandora's

curiosity!



Soon after this the god decided that it was time to punish Prometheus.

He called Strength and Force and bade them seize the Titan and carry

him to the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains. Then he sent Vulcan

to bind him with iron chains, making arms and feet fast to the rocks.

Vulcan was sorry for Prometheus, but dared not disobey.



So the friend of man lay, miserably bound, naked to the winds, while

the storms beat about him and an eagle tore at his liver with its

cruel talons. But Prometheus did not utter a groan in spite of all his

sufferings. Year after year he lay in agony, and yet he would not

complain, beg for mercy or repent of what he had done. Men were sorry

for him, but could do nothing.



Then one day a beautiful white cow passed over the mountain, and

stopped to look at Prometheus with sad eyes.



"I know you," Prometheus said. "You are Io, once a fair and happy

maiden dwelling in Argos, doomed by Jupiter and his jealous queen to

wander over the earth in this guise. Go southward and then west until

you come to the great river Nile. There you shall again become a

maiden, fairer than ever before, and shall marry the king of that

country. And from your race shall spring the hero who will break my

chains and set me free."



Centuries passed and then a great hero, Hercules, came to the Caucasus

Mountains. He climbed the rugged peak, slew the fierce eagle, and with

mighty blows broke the chains that bound the friend of man.









TTITLE THE LABORS OF HERCULES





Before the birth of Hercules Jupiter had explained in the council of

the gods that the first descendant of Perseus should be the ruler of

all the others of his race. This honor was intended for the son of

Perseus and Alcmene; but Juno was jealous and brought it about that

Eurystheus, who was also a descendant of Perseus, should be born

before Theseus. So Eurystheus became king in Mycene, and the

later-born Hercules remained inferior to him.



Now Eurystheus watched with anxiety the rising fame of his young

relative, and called his subject to him, demanding that he carry

through certain great tasks or labors. When Hercules did not

immediately obey, Jupiter himself sent word to him that he should

fulfill his service to the King of Greece.



Nevertheless the hero son of a god could not make up his mind easily

to render service to a mere mortal. So he traveled to Delphi and

questioned the oracle as to what he should do. This was the answer:





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