"We find three kinds of sponges mentioned; the first are thick, very

hard, and rough, and are called tragi: the second are thick, and much

softer, and are called mani: of the third, being fine, and of a closer

texture, tents for sores are made; this last is known as Achillium.

All of these sponges grow on rocks, and feed upon shell and other fish,

and slime.

"It would appear that these creatures, too, hav
some intelligence; for,

as soon as ever they feel the hand about to tear them off, they contract

themselves, and are separated with much greater difficulty: they do the

same also, when the waves buffet them to and fro. The small shells that

are found in them, clearly show that they live upon food; about Torone

it is even said that they will survive after they have been detached,

and that they grow again from the roots which have been left adhering to

the rock. They leave a colour similar to that of blood upon the rock

from which they have been detached, and those, more especially, which

are produced in the Syrtes of Africa."

Olaus Magnus gives us the accompanying illustration of Zoophytes and

Sponges. Of the latter, he says:--"Sponges are much multiplied near the

Coasts of Norway; the nature of it is, that it agrees with other

living creatures in the way of contracting, and dilating itself: yet

some are immovable from rocks, and if they be broken off at the Roots,

they grow again; some are movable from place to place; and these are

found in huge plenty on the foresaid shores. They are fed with mud,

small fish, and oysters. When they are alive, they are black, as they

are when they are wet."