The Bear

As Pliny not only uses all Aristotle's matter anent Bears, but puts it

in a consecutive, and more readable form, it is better to transcribe his

version than that of the older author.

"Bears couple in the beginning of winter. The female then retires by

herself to a separate den, and then brings forth, on the thirtieth day,

mostly five young ones. When first born, they are shapeless masses of

white flesh, a
little larger than mice; their claws alone being

prominent. The mother then licks them into proper shape.[34] The male

remains in his retreat for forty days, the female four months. If they

happen to have no den, they construct a retreat with branches and

shrubs, which is made impenetrable to the rain, and is lined with soft

leaves. During the first fourteen days they are overcome by so deep a

sleep, that they cannot be aroused by wounds even. They become

wonderfully fat, too, while in this lethargic state. This fat is much

used in medicine, and it is very useful in preventing the hair from

falling off.[35] At the end of these fourteen days they sit up, and find

nourishment by sucking their fore paws. They warm their cubs, when cold,

by pressing them to the breast, not unlike the way in which birds brood

over their eggs. It is a very astonishing thing, but Theophrastus

believes it, that if we preserve the flesh of the bear, the animal being

killed in its dormant state, it will increase in bulk, even though it

may have been cooked. During this period no signs of food are to be

found in the stomach of the animal, and only a very slight quantity of

liquid; there are a few drops of blood only, near the heart, but none

whatever in any other part of the body. They leave their retreat in the

spring, the males being remarkably fat; of this circumstance, however,

we cannot give any satisfactory explanation, for the sleep, during which

they increase so much in bulk, lasts, as we have already stated, only

fourteen days. When they come out, they eat a certain plant, which is

known as Aros, in order to relax the bowels, which would otherwise

become in a state of constipation; and they sharpen the edges of their

teeth against the young shoots of the trees.

"Their eyesight is dull, for which reason in especial, they seek the

combs of bees, in order that from the bees stinging them in the throat,

and drawing blood, the oppression in the head may be relieved. The head

of the bear is extremely weak, whereas, in the lion, it is remarkable

for its strength: on which account it is, that when the bear, impelled

by any alarm, is about to precipitate itself from a rock, it covers its

head with its paws. In the arena of the Circus they are often to be seen

killed by a blow on the head with the fist. The people of Spain have a

belief, that there is some kind of magical poison in the brain of the

bear, and therefore burn the heads of those that have keen killed in

their public games; for it is averred, that the brain, when mixed with

drink, produces, in man, the rage of the bear.

"These animals walk on two feet, and climb trees backwards. They can

overcome the bull, by suspending themselves, by all four legs, from his

muzzle and horns, thus wearing out its powers by their weight. In no

other animal is stupidity found more adroit in devising mischief."

Olaus Magnus, in writing about bears, gives precedence to the white, or

Arctic bear, and gives an insight into the religious life of the old

Norsemen, who, when converted, thought their most precious things none

too good for the "Church." If we consider the risk run in obtaining a

white bear's skin, and the privations and cold endured in getting it, we

may look upon it as a Norse treasure. "Silver and Gold have I none; but

such as I have, give I unto thee." He gives a short, but truthful

account of their habits, and winds up his all too brief narration

thus:--"These white Bear Skins are wont to be offered by the Hunters,

for the high Altars of Cathedrals, or Parochial Churches, that the

Priest celebrating Mass standing, may not take cold of his feet, when

the Weather is extream cold. In the Church at Nidrosum, which is the

Metropolis of the Kingdom of Norway, every year such white Skins are

found, that are faithfully offered by the Hunters Devotion, whensoever

they take them, and Wolves-Skins to buy Wax-Lights, and to burn them in

honour of the Saints."

Olaus Magnus is very veracious in his dealings with White Bears, but he

morally retrogrades when he touches upon the Black and Brown Bears. The

illustrations of this portion of Olaus Magnus are exceedingly graphic.

In treating of the cunning used in killing bears, he says:--"In killing

black and cruel Bears in the Northern Kingdoms, they use this way,

namely, that when, in Autumn the Bear feeds on certain red ripe Fruit

(Query Cranberries) on trees that grow in Clusters like Grapes, either

going up into the Trees, or standing on the ground, and pulling down the

Trees, the cunning Hunter, with broad Arrows from a Crosse-bow shoots

at him, and these pierce deep; and he is so suddenly moved with this

fright, and wound received, that he presently voids backward all the

Fruit he ate, as Hailstones; and presently runs upon an Image of a man

made of wood, that is set purposely before him, and rends and tears

that, till another Arrow hit him, that gives him his death's wound, shot

by the Hunter that hides himself behind some Stone or Tree. For when he

hath a wound, he runs furiously, at the sight of his blood, against all

things in his way, and especially the Shee-Bear, when she suckleth her


"The Bears watch diligently for the passing of Deer; and chiefly, the

Shee-Bear when she hath brought forth her Whelps; who not so much for

Hunger, as for fearing of losing her Whelps, is wont to fall cruelly

upon all she meets. For, she being provoked by any violence, far exceeds

the force of the He-Bear, and Craft, that she may revenge the loss of

her Young. For she lyes hid amongst the thick boughs of Trees, and

young Shoots; and if a Deer, trusting to the glory of his horns, or

quick smell, or swift running, come too neare that place unawares, she

suddenly falls out upon him to kill him; and if he first defend himself

with his horns, yet he is so tired with the knots and weight of them,

being driven by the rage of the Bear, that he is beaten to the ground,

that losing force and life, he falls down a prey to be devoured. Then

she will set upon the Bull with his horns, using the same subtilty, and

casts herself upon his back; and when the Bull strives with his horns to

cast off the Bear, and to defend himself, she fasteneth on his horns and

shoulders with her paws, till, weary of the weight he falls down dead.

Then laying the Bull on his back like a Wallet, she goes on two feet

into the secret places of the Woods to feed upon him. But when, in

Winter she is hunted, she is betrayed by Dogs, or by the prints of her

feet in the Snow, and can hardly escape from the Hunters that run about

her from all sides."

Magnus then retails the usual fables about bears licking their young

into shape, their building houses, &c., &c., after which he discourses

about the bear and hedgehog, a story which has nothing to do with the

picture. It is described as "the Battail between the Hedge-Hog, and the


"Though the Urchin have sharp pointed prickles, whereby he gathereth

Apples to feed on, and these he hides in hollow Trees, molesting the

Bear in his Den: yet is he oppressed by the cunning and weight of the

Bear: namely when the Urchin roles himself up round as a ball, that

there is nothing but his prickles to come at: yet with this means he

cannot prevail against the Bear, which opens him, to revenge the wrong

he did her in violating her Lodging. Nor can the Bear eat the

Hedge-Hog, it is such miserable poor and prickly meat. Wherefore

returning again into his Cave, he sleeps, and grows fat, living by

sucking his paw.

"The Bears also fight against the Bores, but seldome get the

victory, because they can better defend themselves with their Tusks,

than the Bull or the Deer can by their Horns, or running swiftly.

The strong Horses keep off the Bears with their biting and kicking,

from the Mares that are great with Foals. Young Colts save

themselves by running, but they will always hold this fear, and so

become unprofitable for the Wars. Wherefore they use this stratagem:

some Souldier puts on a Bear's skin, and meets them, by reason that they

are horses that the Bears have hunted."

The Northern Bears seem to have been wonderful creatures, for they used

to go mad after eating Mandragora, and then they were in the habit of

making a meal off ants, by way of recovering their sanity. They were

then, as now, noted for their love of honey, and this illustration

depicts them as coming out of, and going into the ground after bees and

honey; nay, it would seem as if they even invaded the barrels put up in

the trees to serve as hives. But man was more cunning than they, and a

good bear-skin in those cold regions, had a value far exceeding honey.

"Since that in the Northern Countries, especially Podolia, Russia,

and places adjacent, because of the great multitude of Bees, the Hives

at home will not contain them, the Inhabitants willingly let them fly

unto hollow Trees, made so by Nature, or by Art, that they may increase

there. Wherefore mortal stratagems are thus prepared for Bears, that use

to steal honey (for they having a most weak head, as a Lion hath the

strongest, for sometimes they will be killed with a blow under their

ear); namely a Woodden Club set round with Iron points is hung over the

hole the Bees come forth of, from some high bough, or otherwise; and

this, being cast upon the head of the greedy Bear that is going to steal

the honey, kills him striving against it; so he loseth his life, flesh,

and skin to the Master, for a little honey. Their flesh is salted up

like Hog's flesh, Stag's flesh, Elk's, or Ranged deer's flesh, to eat in

Camps, and the Tallow of them is good to cure any wounds."

Every one of my readers, who is not a Scotsman, will appreciate the

delicate musical taste of the bear, in the matter of bagpipes--Bruin

cannot stand the skirling, and, in the illustration, seems to be

remonstrating with the piper.

"It is well enough known that Bears, Dolphins, Stags, Sheep, Calves and

Lambs, are much delighted with Musick: and, again, they are to be driven

from their Heards by some harsh sounding Pipes, or Horns, that when they

hear the sound they will be gone into the Woods, a great way off. Now

the Shepheards of the Cattel know this well enough: they will play upon

their two horned Pipes continually, which sometimes are taken away by

Bears, until such time as the Bear is forced by Hunger to go away to get

his food. Wherefore they take a Goat's Horn, and sometimes a Cow's Horn,

and make such a horrid noise, that they scare the wild beasts, and so

return safe to their dispersed flocks. This two horned Pipe, which in

their tongue they call Seec-Pipe, they carry to the fields with them,

for they have learned by use, that their Flocks and Heards will feed the

better and closer together.

"The Russians and Lithuanians are more near to the Swedes and Goths

on the Eastern parts: and these hold it a singular delight, to have

always the most cruel Beasts bred up tame with them, and made obedient

to their commands in all things. Wherefore to do this the Sooner, they

keep them in Caves, or tyed with Chains, chiefly Bears newly taken in

the Woods, and half starve them; and they appoint one or two Masters,

cloathed one like the other, to carry Victuals to them, that they may be

accustomed to play with them, and handle them when they are loose. Also

they play on Pipes sweetly, and with this they are much taken: and thus

they use them to sport and dance, and then, when the Pipes sound

differently, they are taught to lift up their legs, as by a more sharp

sign, to end the Dance with, that they may go on their hinder feet, with

a Cap in their fore feet, held out to the Women and Maids, and others

that saw them dance, and ask a reward for their dancing; and, if it is

not given freely, they will murmure, as they are directed by their

Master, and will nod their heads, as desiring them to give more money:

So the Master of these Bears, that cannot speak the language of other

countries, will get a good gain by his dumb Beast. Nor doth this seem to

be done onely because that these should live by this small gain; for the

Bearherds that lead these Bears, are, at least, ten or twelve lusty men;

and in their company, sometimes, there go Noblemen's sons, that they may

learn the manners, fashions, and distances of places, the Military Arts,

and Concord of Princes, by these merry Pastimes. But since they were

found, in Germany, to spoil Travellers, and to cast them to their

Bears to eat, most strict Laws are made against them, that they may

never come there again.

"There is another Sport, when Bears taken, are put into a Ship, and shew

merry pastimes in going up and down the Ropes, and sometimes are

profitable for some unexpected accident. For Histories of the

Provincials mention, that it hapned, that one was thus freed from a

Pirate that was like to set upon him; for the Pirate coming on, was

frighted at it, when he saw afar off, men, as he supposed, going up and

down the Ropes, from the Top Mast, as the manner is to defend the Ship.

Whereas they were but young Bears, playing on the Ropes. But the most

pleasant sight of all is, that when the Bears look out of the Ship into

the Waters, a great number of Sea Calves will come and gaze upon them,

that you would think an innumerable Company of Hogs swam about the Ship,

and they are caught by the Sea men with long Spears, with Hooks, and a

Cord tyed to them; and so are also the other Beasts, that come to help

the Sea Calves, taken, and crying like to Hogs. Also the Bears are let

down to swim, that they may catch these wandering Sea-Calves, or else,

when it thunders, and the weather is tempestuous, they be taken above


"But that tame Bears may not onely be kept unprofitably to feed, and

make sport, they are set to the Wheels in the Courts of great men, that

they may draw up Water out of deep Wells; and that in huge Vessels made

for this purpose, and they do not help alone this Way, but they are set

to draw great Waggons, for they are very strong in their Legs, Claws,

and Loins; nor is it unfit to make them go upright, and carry burdens of

Wood, and such like, to the place appointed, or they stand at great

men's doors, to keep out other hurtful Creatures. When they are young,

they will play wonderfully with Boys, and do them no hurt."

Topsell goes through the usual stories of bears licking their cubs into

shape, and subsisting by sucking their claws--but he also affords us

much information about bears, which we do not find in modern Natural

Histories:--"At what time they come abroad, being in the beginning of

May, which is the third moneth from the Spring. The old ones being

almost dazled with long darknes, comming into light againe, seeme to

stagger and reele too and fro, and then for the straightnesse of their

guts, by reason of their long fasting, doe eat the herbe Arum, called

in English Wake-Robbin, or Calves-foot, being of very sharpe and

tart taste, which enlargeth their guts, and so, being recovered, they

remaine all the time their young are with them, more fierce, and cruell

than at other times. And concerning the same Arum, called also

Dracunculus, and Oryx, there is a pleasant vulgar tale, whereby some

have conceived that Beares eat this herbe before their lying secret, and

by vertue thereof (without meat, or sence of cold) they passe away the

whole winter in sleepe.

"There was a certaine cow-heard, in the Mountains of Helvetia, which,

comming downe a hill, with a great caldron on his backe, he saw a beare

eating a root which he had pulled up with his feet; the cowheard stood

still till the beare was gone, and afterward came to the place where the

beast had eaten the same, and, finding more of the same roote, did

likewise eat it; he had no sooner tasted thereof, but he had such a

desire to sleepe, that hee could not containe himselfe, but he must

needs lie down in the way, and there fell a sleep, having covered his

heade with the caldron, to keep himself from the vehemency of the colde,

and there slept all the Winter time without harme, and never rose againe

till the spring time; which fable if a man will beleeve, then,

doubtlesse, this hearbe may cause the Beares to be sleepers, not for

fourteene dayes, but for fourscore dayes together.

"The ordinary food of Beares is fish; for the Water beare, and others

will eate fruites, Apples, Grapes, Leaves, and Pease, and will breake

into bee hives sucking out the honey; likewise Bees, Snayles and Emmets,

and flesh, if it bee leane, or ready to putrifie; but, if a Beare doe

chance to kill a swine, or a Bull, or Sheepe, he eateth them presentlie,

whereas other beasts eate not hearbes, if they eate flesh: likewise they

drinke water, but not like other beastes, neither sucking it, or lapping

it, but as it were, even bitinge at it.

"They are exceeding full of fat or Larde-greace, which some use

superstitiouslie beaten with oile, wherewith they anoint their

grape-sickles when they go to vintage, perswading themselves that if no

bodie knows thereof, their tender vine braunches shall never be consumed

by catterpillers.

"Others attribute this to the vertue of Beare's blood, and

Theophrastus affirmeth, that if beare's grease be kept in a vessell,

at such time as the beares lie secret, it will either fill it up, or

cause it to runne over. The flesh of beares is unfit for meate, yet some

use to eate it, after it hath been twice sodden; other eat it baked in

pasties, but the truth is, it is better for medicine than food.

Theophrastus likewise affirmeth, that at the time when beares lie

secret, their dead flesh encreaseth, which is kept in houses, but

beare's fore feet are held for a verie delicate and well tasted foode,

full of sweetnes, and much used by the German Princes.

"And because of the fiercenesse of this beast, they are seldome taken

alive, except they be very young, so that some are killed in the

Mountaines by Poyson, the Country being so steepe and rocky that hunters

cannot followe them; some taken in ditches of the earth and other

ginnes. Oppianus relateth that neare Tygris and Armenia, the

inhabitauntes use this Stratigem to take Beares.

"The people go often to the Wooddes to find the Denne of the Beare,

following a leam hound, whose nature is, so soone as he windeth the

beast, to barke, whereby his leader discovereth the prey, and so draweth

off the hounde with the leame; then come the people in great multitude,

and compasse him about with long nets, placing certaine men at each end:

then tie they a long rope to one side of the net, as high from the

ground, as the small of a Man's belly; whereunto are fastned divers

plumes and feathers of vultures, swannes, and other resplendant coloured

birdes, which, with the wind make a noise or hissing, turning over and

glistering; on the other side of the net they build foure little hovels

of greene boughes, wherein they lay foure men covered all over with

greene leaves; then, all being prepared, they sound their Trumpets, and

wind their horns; at the noise whereof the beare ariseth, and in his

fearefull rage runneth too and fro as if he sawe fire: the young men,

armed, make unto him, the beare, looking round about, taketh the

plainest way toward the rope hung full of feathers, which, being

stirred, and haled by those that holde it, maketh the beare much affraid

with the ratling and hissing thereof, and so flying from that side halfe

mad, runneth into the nets, where the keepers entrap him so cunningly,

that he seldome escapeth.

"When a Beare is set upon by an armed man, he standeth upright, and

taketh the man betwixt his forefeet, but he, being covered all over with

yron plates can receive no harm, and then may easily, with a sharpe

knife or dagger pierce thorough the heart of the beast.

"If a shee beare having young ones be hunted, shee driveth her Whelpes

before her, untill they be wearied, and then, if she be not prevented,

she climbeth uppon a tree, carrying one of her young in her mouth, and

the other on her backe. A Beare will not willingly fight with a man,

but, being hurt by a man, he gnasheth his teeth, and licketh his

forefeete, and it is reported by an Ambassador of Poland, that when

the Sarmatians finde a beare, they inclose the whole Wood by a

multitude of people standing not above a cubit one from another; then

cut they downe the outmost trees, so that they raise a Wall of wood to

hemme in the Beares; this being effected, they raise the Beare, having

certaine forkes in their hands, made for that purpose, and, when the

Beare approacheth, they, (with those forkes) fall upon him, one keeping

his head, another one leg, other his body, and so, with force, muzzle

him and tie his legges, leading him away. The Rhaetians use this policy

to take Wolves and Beares; they raise up great posts, and crosse them

with a long beame laded with heavy weightes, unto the which beame they

fasten a corde with meat therein, whereunto the beast comming, and

biting at the meat, pulleth downe the beame upon her owne pate.

"The inhabitants of Helvetia hunt them with mastiffe Dogges, because

they should not kill their cattell left at large in the fielde in the

day time; They likewise shoote them with gunnes, giving a good summe of

money to them that can bring them a slaine beare. The Sarmatians use

to take Beares by this sleight; under those trees wherein bees breed,

they plant a great many of sharpe pointed stakes, putting one hard into

the hole wherein the bees go in and out, whereunto the Beare climbing,

and comming to pull it forth, to the end that she may come to the hony,

and being angry that the stake sticketh so fast in the hole, with

violence plucketh it foorth with both her fore feet, whereby she looseth

her holde, and falleth downe upon the picked stakes, whereupon she

dieth, if they that watch for her come not to take her off. There was

reported by Demetrius, Ambassador at Rome, from the King of Musco,

that a neighbor of his, going to seek hony, fell into a hollow tree, up

to the brest in hony, where he lay two days, being not heard by any man

to complain; at length came a great Beare to this hony, and, putting his

head into the tree, the poore man tooke hold thereof, whereat, the

Beare, suddenly affrighted, drew the man out of that deadly danger, and

so ranne away for feare of a worse creature.

"But, if there be no tree wherein Bees doe breed neere to the place

where the Beare abideth, then they use to annoint some hollow place of a

tree with hony, whereinto Bees will enter and make hony combes, and when

the Beare findeth them, she is killed as aforesaide. In Norway they

use to saw the tree almost asunder, so that when the beast climbeth it,

she falleth downe upon piked stakes laid underneath to kill her; and

some make a hollow place in a tree, wherein they put a great pot of

water, having annointed it with hony, at the bottome wherof are fastened

certaine hookes bending downeward, leaving an easie passage for the

beare to thrust in her head to get the honie, but impossible to pull it

foorth againe alone, because the hookes take holde on her skinne; this

pot they binde fast to a tree, whereby the Beare is taken alive and

blinde folded, and though her strength breake the corde or chaine

wherewith the pot is fastened, yet can shee not escape or hurt any bodie

in the taking, by reason her head is fastened in the pot.

"To conclude, other make ditches or pits under Apple trees, laying upon

their mouth rotten stickes, which they cover with earth, and strawe

uppon it herbes, and when the beare commeth to the Apple tree, she

falleth into the pit and is taken.

"The herbe Wolfebaine or Liberdine is poison to Foxes, Wolves, Dogs,

and Beares, and to all beasts that are littered blind, as the Alpine

Rhaetians affirme. There is one kinde of this called Cyclamine, which

the Valdensians call Tora, and with the juice thereof they poison

their darts, whereof I have credibly received this story; That a certain

Valdensian, seeing a wilde beare, having a dart poysond heerewith, did

cast it at the beare, being farre from him, and lightly wounded her, it

being no sooner done, but the beare ran to and fro in a wonderful

perplexitie through the woods, unto a verie sharpe cliffe of a rocke,

where the man saw her draw her last breath, as soon as the poison

entered to her hart, as he afterward found by opening of her bodie. The

like is reported of henbane, another herb. But there is a certaine

blacke fish in Armenia full of poison, with the pouder whereof they

poison figs, and cast them in those places where wilde beastes are most

plentifull, which they eat, and so are killed.

"Concerning the industrie or naturall disposition of a beare, it is

certaine that they are very hardlie tamed, and not to be trusted though

they seeme never so tame; for which cause there is a storie of Diana

in Lysias, that there was a certaine beare made so tame, that it went

uppe and downe among men, and woulde feede with them, taking meat at

their handes, giving no occasion to feare or mistrust her cruelty; on a

daye, a young mayde playing with the Beare, lasciviously did so provoke

it, that he tore her in pieces; the Virgin's brethren seeing the

murther, with their Dartes slew the Beare, whereupon followed a great

pestilence through all that region: and when they consulted with the

Oracle, the paynim God gave answeare, that the plague could not cease

untill they dedicated some virginnes unto Diana for the Beare's sake

that was slaine; which, some interpreting that they should sacrifice

them, Embarus, upon condition the priesthoode might remaine in his

family, slewe his onely daughter to end the pestilence, and for this

cause the virgins were after dedicated to Diana before their marriage,

when they were betwixt ten and fifteene yeare olde, which was performed

in the moneth of January, otherwise they could not be married: yet

beares are tamed for labours, and especially for sports among the

Roxalani and Libians, being taught to draw water with wheeles out of

the deepest wels; likewise stones upon sleds, to the building of wals.

"A prince of Lituania nourished a Beare very tenderly, feeding her

from his table with his owne hand, for he had used her to be familiar in

his court, and to come into his owne chamber, when he listed, so that

she would goe abroad into the fields and woods, returning home againe of

her owne accord, and with her hand or foote rub the Kinge's chamber

doore to have it opened, when she was hungry, it being locked. It

happened that certaine young Noble men conspired the death of this

Prince, and came to his chamber doore, rubbing it after the custome of

the beare, the King not doubting any evill, and supposing it had bene

his beare, opened the doore, and they presently slewe him....

"There are many naturall operations in Beares. Pliny reporteth, that,

if a woman bee in sore travaile of child-birth, let a stone, or arrow,

which hath killed a man, a beare, or a bore, be throwne over the house

wherein the Woman is, and she shall be eased of her paine. There is a

small worme called Volvox, which eateth the vine branches when they

are young, but if the vine-sickles be annointed with Beare's blood, that

worme will never hurt them. If the blood or greace of a Beare be set

under a bed, it will draw unto it all the fleas, and so kill them by

cleaving thereunto. But the vertues medicinall are very many; and first

of all, the blood cureth all manner of bunches and apostems in the

flesh, and bringeth haire upon the eyelids if the bare place be

annointed therewith.

"The fat of a Lyon is most hot and dry, and next to a Lyon's a

Leopard's; next to a Leopard's a Beare's; and next to a Beare's, a

Bul's. The later Physitians use it to cure convulsed and distracted

parts, spots, and tumors in the body. It also helpeth the paine of the

loins, if the sicke part be annointed therewith, and all ulcers in the

legges or shinnes, when a plaister is made thereof with bole armoricke.

Also the ulcers of the feet, mingled with allome. It is soveraigne

against the falling of the haire, compounded with wilde roses. The

Spaniards burne the braines of beares, when they die in any publicke

sports, holding them venemous; because, being drunke, they drive a man

to be as mad as a beare; and the like is reported of the heart of a

Lyon, and the braine of a Cat. The right eie of a beare dried to pouder,

and hung about children's neckes in a little bag, driveth away the

terrour of dreames, and both the eyes whole, bound to a man's left arme,

easeth a quartan ague.

"The liver of a sow, a lamb, and a bear put togither, and trod to pouder

under one's shoos, easeth and defendeth cripples from inflamation: the

gall being preserved and warmed in water, delivereth the bodie from

Colde, when all other medicine faileth. Some give it, mixt with Water,

to them that are bitten with a mad Dogge, holding it for a singular

remedie, if the party can fast three daies before. It is also given

against the palsie, the king's evill, the falling sickenesse, an old

cough, the inflamation of the eies, the running of the eares, delevery

in child birth, the Haemorrhods, the weaknes of the backe, and the

palsie: and that women may go their full time, they make ammulets of

Bear's nails, and cause them to weare them all the time they are with